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Electricity Generation

Around 4,490.6 ktoe (52.2 TWh) of electricity was generated in 2017, an increase of 1.2% from the 4,435.6ktoe (51.6 TWh) produced in 2016. Main Power Producers (MPPs) contributed 92.4% (4,147.5 ktoe) of total electricity generation, while the remaining 7.6% (343.1 ktoe) was accounted for by Autoproducers1.

Autoproducers' share of electricity generation has steadily grown over the years. From only 2.5% in 2008, this has climbed to 2.8% in 2010, and subsequently to 7.6% in 2017.

electricity generation
Fuel mix for electricity generation

Singapore's dependence on steam turbine plants for electricity generation has gradually declined over the years with the introduction of new Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) plants. This resulted in an increase in the share of Natural Gas (NG), the primary fuel of CCGTs, in Singapore's fuel mix. Singapore's dependence on Fuel Oil, the primary fuel of steam plants, has thus fallen over time.

In 2017, NG accounted for 95.2% of fuel mix. Other energy products (e.g. Municipal Waste, Biomass and Solar) accounted for 2.9% while the rest was contributed by Coal (i.e. 1.3%) and Petroleum Products, mainly in the form of Diesel and Fuel Oil (i.e. 0.7%).

fuel mix for electricity generation
Electricity generation Industry

The total electricity generation capacity in Singapore grew slightly from 13,611.9 MW in 2017 to 13,614.4 MW in 20181 due to an increase in the generation capacity of Solar Photovoltaic (PV). The CCGT, Co-Generation and/or Tri-Generation Plants (CCGT/Co- Gen/Tri-Gen) constituted 77.2% (or 10,508.2 MW) of this capacity, while Steam Turbines constituted 18.8% (or 2,554.6 MW). Open Cycle Gas Turbine, Waste-To-Energy and Solar PV contributed to the remaining 1.3% (or 180.0 MW), 1.9% (or 256.8 MW) and 0.8% (or 256.8 MW) of total electricity capacity respectively.

Over the years, the repowering of Steam Turbine plants into more efficient CCGT/Co-Gen/Tri-Gen plants have resulted in a decline of Steam Turbine plants' licensed generation capacity from 4,640.0 MW in 2005 to 2,554.6MW as at end March 2018.

Licensed Generation Capacity By Technology Type

MPPs accounted for 95.0% (or 12,930.7 MW) of total electricity generation capacity, while Autoproducers made up the remaining 5.0% ( 683.7 MW).

Licensed Generation Capacity By Generation Company

In recent years, the power generation market has been increasingly competitive with the expansion of smaller existing MPPs, and the entry of new MPPs (i.e. PacificLight Power in 2014, and Tuaspring in 2015). This had resulted in a fall in the generation capacity market share of the three major MPPs — Senoko Energy, YTL PowerSeraya and Tuas Power — from 88.8% in 2005, to 84.3% in 2010, and subsequently to 66.0% as at end March 2018.

Percentage Contribution By Generation Company

The electricity generation market share for the three major MPPs also registered a gradual decline since 2005. With a combined market dominance of 83.0% in 2005, this fell to 76.3% in 2010, and subsequently to 55.7% in 2017. This decline correlated with their decreasing share of generation capacity.

Conversely, the next 2 largest MPPs — Keppel Merlimau Cogen and Sembcorp Cogen — gradually expanded their combined market share from 12.1% in 2005, to 17.5% in 2010, and to 21.4% in 2017.

market share for electricity generation
Energy flows in oil refining sector

About 53.3 Mtoe of refinery inputs were consumed by the oil refining sector in 2016, a 3.5% increase from the 51.5 Mtoe recorded in 2015. These inputs yielded 51.5 Mtoe of refinery outputs, 4.3% higher than the corresponding output of 49.3 Mtoe a year earlier.

In 2016, Light Distillates and Heavy Distillates & Residuum recorded outputs totalling 14.2 Mtoe and 15.2 Mtoe, about 7.8% and 7.7% higher than their corresponding output respectively in 2015. Middle Distillates output stood at 22.1 Mtoe in 2016, consistent with that recorded in 2015.

Energy flow in oil refining sector