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Energy Products

Coal & Peat Products

Coal and Peat products include all coals, both primary (including Hard Coal and Lignite/Brown Coal) and derived fuels (including Patent Fuel, Coke over Coke, Gas Coke, BKB, Coke Oven Gas, Blast Furnace Gas and Oxygen Steel Furnace Gas). Peat is also included in this category. The energy products and their corresponding HS 2012 codes under this category are:

Hard Coal
-
27011210, 27011290, 27011900
Anthracite
-
27011100
Lignite
-
27021000, 27022000
Peat
-
27030010, 27030020
Coke Oven Coke
-
27040010, 27040020, 27040030
Coal Tar
-
27060000
BKB/PB6
-
27012000
Gas Works Gas
-
27050000

Crude Oil Products

Crude Oil products include Crude Oil, Natural Gas Liquids, Refinery Feedstocks and Additives as well as other Hydrocarbons. The energy products and their corresponding HS 2012 codes under this category are:

Crude Oil
-
27090010, 27090020, 27090090
Natural Gas Liquids
-
27111410, 27111490, 27112900
Refinery Feedstocks
-
27101920, 27109100, 27109900
Additives/ Oxygenates
-
29091100, 29091900, 29092000, 29093000, 29094100, 29094300, 29094400, 29094900, 29095000, 29096000, 38112110, 38112190, 38112900, 38119090, 22072011, 22072019, 22072090, 29051100

Petroleum Products

Petroleum Products include Ethane, LPG, Aviation Gasoline, Motor Gasoline, Jet Fuel, Kerosene, Gas/ Diesel Oil, Fuel Oil, Naphtha, White Spirit, Lubricants, Bitumen, Paraffin Waxes, Petroleum Coke and other Petroleum Products. The energy products and their corresponding HS 2012 codes under this category are:

Light Distillates
Gasoline (Aviation)
-
27101220
Gasoline (Motor)
-
27101211, 27101212, 27101213, 27101214, 27101215, 27101216
Liquefied Petroleum
-
27111200, 27111300, 27111900
Gas (LPG)
Naphtha
-
27101270
White Spirit SBP
-
27101230, 27101240, 27101250, 27101260, 27101280, 27101290
Middle Distillates
Gas/Diesel Oil
-
27101971, 27101972
Jet Fuel Kerosene
-
27101981, 27101982
Other Kerosenes
-
27101983
Heavy Distillates & Residuum
Bitumen
-
27132000, 27139000, 27141000, 27149000, 27150000
Fuel Oil
-
27101979
Lubricants
-
27101941, 27101942, 27101943, 27101944, 27101950
Other Petroleum Products
-
27071000, 27072000, 27073000, 27074000, 27075000, 27079100, 27079910, 27079990, 27081000, 27082000, 27101930, 27101960, 27101989, 27101990, 27102000
Paraffin Waxes
-
27121000, 27122000, 27129010, 27129090
Petroleum Coke
-
27131100, 27131200

Natural Gas

Natural Gas includes Natural Gas (excluding Natural Gas Liquids) and Town Gas. The energy products and their corresponding HS 2012 codes under this category are:

Natural Gas
-
27112190
Liquefied Natural Gas
-
27111100

Others (Energy Products)

Others' refer to other energy products that are not classified. These include Solar, Biomass, and Waste (such as Municipal Waste and Biogas). Municipal Waste is waste produced by residential, commercial and public services that is collected by local authorities for disposal in a central location for the production of electricity and/or heat.


Electricity Generation

Main Power Producers

These are enterprises that produce electricity as their principal activity.


Autoproducers

These are enterprises that produce electricity but for whom the production is not their principal activity.


Own Use

Own use in electricity generation refers to the part of electricity generated which is consumed by the auxiliary equipment of the generation plant (such as pumps, fans and motors) under normal operations.


Registered Generation Capacity

The registered generation capacity of a generation facility is the maximum generation capacity approved by Power System Operator (PSO), and registered with Energy Market Company (EMC) to provide one or more of the following products in the Singapore Wholesale Electricity Market (SWEM):

1.

Energy;

2.

Reserve (Primary, Secondary or Contingency); and/or

3.

Regulation.

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) Plant

Combined Cycle Gas Turbines are a form of highly-efficient energy generation technology that combines a gas-fired turbine with a steam turbine.

The design uses a gas turbine to create electricity. It then captures the resulting waste heat to create steam which, in turn, drives a steam turbine to significantly increase the system's power output without any increase in fuel.


Co-Generation (Co-Gen) Plant

Co-generation plants (also known as combined heat plants) are plants which simultaneously generate electricity and useful heat from a common fuel source. This, improves overall thermodynamical efficiency.


Tri-Generation (Tri-Gen) Plant

Tri-generation plants are those which simultaneously generate electricity, useful heat and cooling from a common fuel source. This improves overall thermodynamical efficiency.


Open Cycle Gas Turbine (OCGT) Plant

An Open Cycle Gas Turbine plant is a gas turbine power plant which discards the heat content of the exhaust gases exiting the turbine. This is as opposed to using a heat exchanger or recovered in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) as in a CCGT.


Steam Turbine Plant

A steam turbine is a turbine that is driven by the pressure of steam discharged at high velocity against the turbine vanes.


Waste-To-Energy (WTE) Plant

A Waste-To-Energy plant is a power plant which generates power from the incineration of waste.


Electricity & natural gas consumption

Electricity Consumption

This refers to total electricity consumption by end users, including (embedded) consumption by Autoproducers.


Contestable Consumers

Contestable Consumers are the eligibility of the consumers to choose their electricity provider. Currently, business consumers with an average monthly consumption of 2,000 kWh or more (equivalent to a monthly electricity bill of at least $400) are eligible to choose their electricity provider. Business consumers can add up their electricity usage across different locations in Singapore to meet the prevailing threshold. They can choose to buy electricity from a retailer of their choice at a price plan that best meets their needs, buy from the wholesale electricity market at half-hourly spot prices or remain with SP Services to buy electricity at regulated tariff rate.

Starting 1 April 2018, EMA commenced the soft launch of Open Electricity Market, where households and businesses in Jurong can choose to buy electricity from a retailer with a price plan that best meets their needs. This will provide consumers with choice and flexibility in their electricity purchases. Consumers who wish to continue buying electricity from SP Group at the regulated tariff can choose to do so. In the second half of 2018, Open Electricity Market will be extended to the rest of Singapore.


Final Energy Consumption

Final energy consumption covers all energy supplied to the final consumer for all energy uses. It is usually disaggregated into the final end-use sectors such as Industrial, Commerce & Services, Transport, Households, and Others.


Final Natural Gas Consumption

This refers to total natural gas consumption by end-users, excluding consumption for electricity generation.


Sectoral activities

Industrial-related

Industrial-related consumption is defined by the following sub-sectors. This isin accordance to the Singapore Standard Industrial Classification 2015 (SSIC 2015).

Agriculture and Fishing
SSIC Section A, Division 1-3
Mining and Quarrying
SSIC Section B, Division 8-9
Manufacturing
SSIC Section C, Division 10-32
Utilities
SSIC Section D, Division 35, and Section E, Division 36-38
Construction
SSIC Section F, Division 41-43

Commerce & Services-related

Commerce & Services-related consumption is defined by the following sub-sectors. This is in accordance to the Singapore Standard Industrial Classification 2015 (SSIC 2015).

Wholesale and Retail Trade
SSIC Section G, Division 46-47
Accommodation and Food Services Activities
SSIC Section I, Division 55 - 56
Information and Communications
SSIC Section J, Division 58-63
Financial and Insurance Activities
SSIC Section K, Division 64-66
Real Estate Activities
SSIC Section L, Division 68
Professional, Scientific and Technical Activities
SSIC Section M, Division 69-75
 
Administrative and Support Services Activities
SSIC Section N, Division 77-82
 
Public Administration and Defence
SSIC Section O, Division 84
Education
SSIC Section P, Division 85
Health and Social Services
SSIC Section Q, Division 86-88
Arts, Entertainment and Recreation
SSIC Section R, Division 90-93
Other Service Activities
SSIC Section S, Division 94-96
Activities of Households as Employers of Domestic Personnel
SSIC Section T, Division 97
 
Activities of Extra-Territorial Organisations and Bodies
SSIC Section U, Division 99
 

Transport-related

Transport-related consumption is defined by the following subsectors. This is in accordance to the Singapore Standard Industrial Classification 2015 (SSIC 2015).

Transport and Storage
SSIC Section H, Division 49-53
Land Transport
SSIC Division 49
Water Transport
SSIC Division 50
Air Transport
SSIC Division 51
Warehousing and Support Activities for Transportation
SSIC Division 52
 
Postal and Courier Activities
SSIC Division 53

Households

The scope of the Households sector includes all households in their capacity as final consumers.


Others

"Others" refer to sectors or activities not adequately defined in SSIC 2015.


Planning area

Central Region

Bishan, Bukit Merah, Bukit Timah, Downtown Core, Geylang, Kallang, Marine Parade, Marina East, Marina South, Museum, Newton, Novena, Orchard, Outram, Queenstown, River Valley, Rochor, Singapore River, Southern Islands, Straits View, Tanglin, Toa Payoh


East Region

Bedok, Changi, Changi Bay, Paya Lebar, Pasir Ris, Tampines


North-East Region

Ang Mo Kio, Hougang, Punggol, North Eastern Islands, Seletar, Sengkang, Serangoon


North Region

Central Water Catchment, Lim Chu Kang, Mandai, Simpang, Sembawang, Sungei Kadut, Woodlands, Yishun


West Region

Boon Lay, Bukit Batok, Bukit Panjang, Choa Chu Kang, Clementi, Jurong East, Jurong West, Jurong Island, Pioneer, Tengah, Tuas, Western Islands, Western Water Catchment


Electricity tariffs components

Energy Costs

This is paid to the generation companies and reflects the cost of power generation.


Grid Charges

This is paid to SP Power Assets to recover the costs of transporting electricity through the grid.


Market Support Services Fees

This is paid to SP Services to recover the costs of billing and meter reading.


Power System Operation & Market Administration Fees

This is paid to the Power System Operator and Energy Market Company to recover the costs of operating the power system and electricity wholesale market.


Price indices

Consumer Price Index (CPI)

This price index measures the average price changes in a fixed basket of consumption goods and services commonly purchased by the households over time.


Import Price Index (IPI)

This price index measures changes in the prices of goods imported into Singapore over time.


Export Price Index (EPI)

This price index measures changes in the price of all exports of merchandise from Singapore, including re-exports.


Domestic Supply Price Index (DSPI)

This is an Input-based Producer Price Index of goods. It measures the price changes of locally manufactured goods and imports which are retained for use in the domestic market.


Singapore Manufactured Product Price Index (SMPPI)

This is an Output-based Producer Price Index of the manufacturing sector. It measures changes in the prices of goods produced by local manufacturers for sale in the local and international markets.


Grid emission factor

Grid Emission Factor (GEF)

The Grid Emission Factor measures average CO2 emission emitted per MWh of electricity. It is calculated using the Average Operating Margin (OM) method. This is the generation-weighted average CO2 emissions per unit net electricity generation of all generating power plants serving the system.


Build Margin (BM) Emission Factor

The Build Margin Emission Factor refers to the generation-weighted average CO2 emissions per unit net electricity generation, of the set of five power units most recently built; and/or the set of power capacity additions that comprise 20% of system generation that have been built recently.


Methane Emission Factor (MEF)

The Methane Emission Factor measures average CH4 emission emitted per MWh of the set of five power units as defined in the BM.


Job Categories for power Sector Employees

Management

Management refers to Chief Executive Officer and Head of Division/ Department/ Section.


Engineer

Engineer refers to Senior Engineer, Engineer, Executive Engineer, Principal Engineer, Shift Manager, Team leader and Deputy Team Leader.


Technical Officer

Technical Officer refers to Principal Technical Officer, Senior Technical Officer and Technical Officer.


Technician

Technician refers to Senior Technician, Technician, Mechanic and Electrician.


Corporate Service Staff

Corporate Service Staff refers to those in Finance, Human Resource, Legal, Administration, Information Technology and Corporate Communications.


Commercial Staff

Commercial Staff refers to Customer Accounts Manager, Business Analyst and those in Business Development, Sales and Marketing.


Trading Staff

Trading Staff refers to System Balance Trader, Position Trader and Quantitative Analyst.


Others

"Others" include Assistant Technician, Semi-skilled Staff and other occupations not classified elsewhere.


Residency Status

Employees under Resident category refers to Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents. Employees under Non-Resident category refers to foreigners.


Licensed electrical, Gas Service and cable detection workers

Electrical Engineer

An electrical engineer's licence entitles the holder to carry out the following electrical work:

a)
design, install, repair, maintain, operate, inspect, test and take full charge and responsibility for any electrical installation.
b)
An electrical engineer's licence has a range of operation voltage restrictions. They are as follows:-

i.
in operation : "up to 1,000 volts"
ii.
in operation : "up to 22,000 volts"
iii.
in operation : "up to 66,000 volts"
iv.
in operation : "up to 230,000 volts"
v.
restricted to particular installations

Electrical Technician

An electrical technician's licence entitles the holder to carry out the following electrical work:

a)
install, repair, maintain, operate, inspect and test an electrical installation where the operating voltage of such an installation does not exceed 1,000 volts and the approved load of such installation does not exceed 500 kVA;
b)
design and submit plans and drawings of an electrical installation. The operating voltage of such an installation does not exceed 1,000 volts and the approved load of such installation does not exceed 150 kVA. The limitation of 1,000 volts shall not apply in the case of an Electric Discharge Lighting Circuit; and
c)
carry out any work or switching operation as instructed by or under the supervision of an authorised high voltage switching engineer.

Electrician

An electrician's licence entitles the holder to carry out the following electrical work:

a)
design, install, repair, maintain, operate, inspect and test an electrical/supply installation where the operating voltage of such an installation does not exceed 1,000 volts and the approved load of such installation does not exceed 45 kVA. The limitation of 1,000 volts shall not apply in the case of an Electric Discharge Lighting Circuit;
b)
install, repair, maintain and operate, under the supervision of an electrical technician. The operating voltage of the, electrical/supply installation should not exceed 1,000 volts and the approved load of such installation should be more than 45 kVA but does not exceed 500 kVA; and
c)
carry out any work as instructed by or under the supervision of an authorised high voltage switching engineer.

Gas Service Worker

A gas service worker licence entitles the holder to carry out the following gas service work where the operating pressure is not more than 30 mbar:

a)
to construct, fix, alter, repair and renew gas pipes and fittings;
b)
to install, maintain, repair and test gas appliances; and
c)
to install or remove gas meters and to turn-on the gas supply on behalf of a gas licensee.

Gas Service Worker (Restricted)

A gas service worker licence (restricted) entitles the holder to carry out the following gas service work where the operating pressure is not more than 30 mbar:

a)
to install, maintain, repair and test gas appliances; and
b)
to install or remove gas meters and to turn-on the gas supply on behalf of a gas licensee.

Cable Detection Workers

A licensed cable detection worker is entitled to perform cable detection work. To minimise damages to electricity cables, it is mandatory to perform cable detection work prior to the commencement of any earthworks.

Cable detection work must be carried out by a licensed cable detection worker. He should inform or advise the earthworks contractor, who engaged him, of the location of the cables detected within the worksite.