Singapore Energy Statistics 2018 provides users with findings and statistics relating to Singapore’s energy supply, transformation and demand.

Sources of Data

The data used in the publication were mainly obtained through administrative returns from licensees and through surveys. EMA licensees are required to submit regulatory returns under the Electricity and Gas Acts. Energy statistics collected through the Joint Energy and Emissions Statistics Survey were also used in this publication. This survey is conducted by EMA Research and Statistics Unit (RSU) together with those of the Economic Development Board (EDB) and the National Environment Agency (NEA) under the Statistics Act.

Other sources of data featured in this publication include energy products trade statistics from the Enterprise Singapore, energy consumption statistics from the NEA and prices statistics from the Singapore Department of Statistics (DOS).

Compilation Framework & Methodology

In compiling the energy statistics, EMA closely follows the recommended principles and methodologies set out in the International Energy Agency (IEA)’s Energy Statistics Manual. For the computation of the electricity grid emission factors and upstream fugitive methane emission factor, methodologies recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are adopted.

Units of Measurement

Energy products are recorded in their original units of measure. As these units of measure vary, quantities of energy products need to be converted into a common unit to allow for comparison and aggregation. The common unit of measurement used to measure energy products in this publication is the tonne of oil equivalent (toe). According to the IEA, the tonne of oil equivalent is defined as follows:

1 tonne of oil equivalent
41.868 gigajoules (GJ)
11,630 kilowatt hours (kWh)

The tonne of oil equivalent should be regarded as a measure of energy content rather than a physical quantity. One tonne of oil is not equal to one tonne of oil equivalent.

The following prefixes are used for multiples of the various units of measure:

kilo (k)
1,000 or 103
mega (M)
1,000,000 or 106
giga (G)
1,000,000,000 or 109
kilo (k)
1,000 or 103
tera (T)
1,000,000,000,000 or 1012

All prices and tariffs are presented in Singapore dollars.

Calorific Values

EMA uses Net Calorific Values (NCV) to convert all fuels from their original units to tonnes of oil equivalent (toe), unless otherwise stated. This change seeks to standardise the conversion practice for all fuel types, as natural gas, notably in the derivation of import values and electricity generated, was previously derived using the Gross Calorific Values (GCV).

Energy Balance

An energy balance is an accounting framework for compilation and reconciliation of data on all energy products entering, exiting, and used within the national territory of a given country during a reference period.

It expresses all forms of energy in a common accounting unit, and shows the relationships between the inputs to, and the outputs from the energy transformation industries.

The balance is divided into three main blocks:


The top block (Energy Supply). This shows the flow representing energy entering and leaving the national territory. It also includes stock changes to provide information on total energy supply on the national territory during the reference period;


The middle block (Energy Transformation). This shows how energy is transformed, transferred, and used by energy industries for their own use and losses in distribution and transmission; and


The bottom block (Final Consumption). This shows final energy consumption by energy consumers.

Fuel Mix for Electricity Generation

The fuel mix for electricity generation can be calculated using either the input or output method. This publication presents fuel mix data compiled by the output method.

The input method calculates the fuel mix for electricity generation based on the ratio of volume of fuel input to generation units. It does not take into account variations in energy content of fuel used by different companies for electricity generation, nor variations in fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency of the generating plants.

The output method uses the amount of electricity generated and the corresponding type of fuel used to calculate the fuel mix for electricity generation. It takes the domestic fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency of the generating plants and the type of plants used into account.

Electricity & Gas Tariffs

Annual and quarterly electricity and gas tariffs refer to the weighted average of tariffs for the specific periods as they may be adjusted at various periods throughout the year.

Re-referencing Price Indices

To allow comparisons between the movements of different prices, price indices series are pegged to a reference year. This is because of the shift from expressing the price indices in relation to a specific base year, to expressing the price indices in relation to a reference year common across all price indices.

Grid Emission Factor & Methane Emission Factor

The methodologies for the compilation of Grid Emission Factor (GEF) are based on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Methodological Tool. This is the “Tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system” and the UNFCCC CDM Approved Baseline Methodology (AM) 0029 Baseline Methodology for grid connected electricity generation plants using natural gas.

GEF measures average CO2 emissions emitted per unit net electricity generated. It is calculated using the Average Operating Margin (OM) method. This is the generation-weighted average CO2 emission per unit net electricity generation of all generating power plants serving the electricity grid. GEF by Build Margin (BM) method refers to the generation-weighted average CO2 emission perunit net electricity generation of the five most recently built power units and/or the set of power capacity additions that comprise at least 20% of the total system electricity generation.

Upstream fugitive Methane Emission Factor (MEF) from electricity generation measures the average CH4 emission per unit net electricity generated. The methodology is similar to the BM method. However, it is based on the five most recently built power units that run on natural gas. These five plants should also generate at least 20% of total system electricity generation.


Energy Products

Energy products refer to products exclusively or mainly used as a source of energy. They include energy in forms suitable for direct use (for instance, electricity and heat) and energy products that release energy while undergoing some chemical or other process (such as combustion). The classification of energy products is based on the Singapore Trade Classification, Customs & Excise Duties 2012 (STCCED 2012 or HS 2012). STCCED classification adopts the ASEAN Harmonised Tariff Nomenclature 2012 (AHTN 2012). This is based on the 6-digit Harmonised Commodity Description and Coding System developed by the World Customs Organisation (WCO) for the classification of goods.

Industrial Activity

Industrial activity refers to the principal activity undertaken by the enterprise. This is where the enterprise devotes most of its resources; or from which it derives most of its income. The classification of the principal activity of the enterprise in the SES 2016 is based on the Singapore Standard Industrial Classification, 2015 (SSIC 2015). SSIC 2015 adopts the basic framework and principles of the International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC).

Planning Region/Area

Planning Region/Area refers to those demarcated in the Urban Redevelopment Authority’s Master Plan 2014.