Technical Notes & Glossary

Chapter 08


Technical Notes


Objectives

Singapore Energy Statistics (SES) 2020 provides users with findings and statistics relating to Singapore’s energy landscape, including energy supply, transformation and demand, energy prices, solar and manpower in the power sector.


Sources of Data

The data used in the publication were mainly obtained through administrative returns from licensees and through surveys. EMA licensees are required to submit regulatory returns under the Electricity and Gas Acts. Energy statistics collected through the Joint Energy and Emissions Statistics Survey were also used in this publication. This survey is conducted by EMA Research and Statistics Unit (RSU) together with those of the Economic Development Board (EDB) and the National Environment Agency (NEA) under the Statistics Act. Other sources of data featured in this publication include energy products trade statistics from the Enterprise Singapore and energy consumption statistics from the NEA and prices statistics from the Energy Market Company (EMC).


Compilation Framework & Methodology

In compiling the energy statistics, EMA closely follows the recommended principles and methodologies set out in the International Energy Agency (IEA)’s Energy Statistics Manual. For the computation of the electricity grid emission factors and upstream fugitive methane emission factor, methodologies recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are adopted.


Units of Measurement

Energy products are recorded in their original units of measure. As these units of measure vary, quantities of energy products need to be converted into a common unit to allow for comparison and aggregation.

The common unit of measurement used to measure energy products in this publication is the tonne of oil equivalent (toe). According to the IEA, the tonne of oil equivalent is defined as follows:

    1 tonne of oil equivalent = 41.868 gigajoules (GJ) = 11,630 kilowatt hours (kWh)

The tonne of oil equivalent should be regarded as a measure of energy content rather than a physical quantity. One tonne of oil is not equal to one tonne of oil equivalent. The following prefixes are used for multiples of the various units of measure:

  • kilo (k)= 1,000 or 103
  • mega (M)= 1,000,000 or 106
  • giga (G)= 1,000,000,000 or 109
  • tera (T)= 1,000,000,000,000 or 1012

All prices and tariffs are presented in Singapore dollars.


Calorific Values

EMA uses Net Calorific Values (NCV) to convert all fuels from their original units to tonnes of oil equivalent (toe), unless otherwise stated.


Energy Balance

An energy balance is an accounting framework for compilation and reconciliation of data on all energy products entering, exiting, and used within the national territory of a given country during a reference period. It expresses all forms of energy in a common accounting unit, and shows the relationships between the inputs to, and the outputs from the energy transformation industries.

The balance is divided into three main blocks:

  • The top block (Energy Supply)
    This shows the flow representing energy entering and leaving the national territory. It also includes stock changes to provide information on total energy supply on the national territory during the reference period;

  • The middle block (Energy Transformation)
    This shows how energy is transformed, transferred, and used by energy industries for their own use and losses in distribution and transmission; and

  • The bottom block (Final Consumption)
    This shows final energy consumption by energy consumers.


Fuel Mix for Electricity Generation

The fuel mix for electricity generation can be calculated using either the input or output method. This publication presents fuel mix data compiled by the output method.

The input method calculates the fuel mix for electricity generation based on the ratio of volume of fuel input to generation units. It does not take into account variations in energy content of fuel used by different companies for electricity generation, nor variations in fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency of the generating plants. The output method uses the amount of electricity generated and the corresponding type of fuel used to calculate the fuel mix for electricity generation. It takes the domestic fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency of the generating plants and the type of plants used into account.


Grid Emission Factor & Methane Emission Factor

The methodologies for the compilation of Grid Emission Factor (GEF) are based on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Methodological Tool. This is the “Tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system” and the UNFCCC CDM Approved Baseline Methodology (AM) 0029 Baseline Methodology for grid connected electricity generation plants using natural gas.

GEF measures average CO2 emissions emitted per unit net electricity generated. It is calculated using the Average Operating Margin (OM) method. This is the generation-weighted average CO2 emission per unit of net electricity generation of all generating power plants serving the electricity grid. GEF by Build Margin (BM) method refers to the generation-weighted average CO2 emission per unit of net electricity generation of the five most recently built power units and/or the set of power capacity additions that comprise at least 20% of the total system electricity generation.

Upstream fugitive Methane Emission Factor (MEF) from electricity generation measures the average CH4 emission per unit of net electricity generated. The methodology is similar to the BM method. However, it is based on the five most recently built power units that run on natural gas. These five plants should also generate at least 20% of total system electricity generation.


Electricity & Gas Tariffs

Annual and quarterly electricity and gas tariffs refer to the weighted average of tariffs for the specific periods as they may be adjusted at various periods throughout the year.


Re-referencing Price Indices

To allow comparisons between the movements of different prices, price indices series are pegged to a reference year. This is because of the shift from expressing the price indices in relation to a specific base year, to expressing the price indices in relation to a reference year common across all price indices.


Installed Capacity of Solar PhotoVoltaic (PV) Systems

The installed capacity of solar PV systems can be expressed in MWp or MWac.

MWp refers to megawatt peak, which is a typical measure of the installed nameplate capacity for solar PV systems. MWp represents the amount of electric power that can be produced by a solar PV system at its peak under Standard Test Conditions (STC). MWac refers to the Alternating Current (AC) capacity of the inverters used in solar PV installations.

MWp and MWac numbers differ because of conversion losses from DC (MWp) to AC (MWac). EMA adopts the derate factor of 0.77 as proposed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to account for these losses, i.e. 1 MWp is estimated to be equivalent to 0.77 MWac.


Classification


Energy Products

Energy products refer to products exclusively or mainly used as a source of energy. They include energy in forms suitable for direct use (for instance, electricity and heat) and energy products that release energy while undergoing some chemical or other process (such as combustion). The classification of energy products is based on the Singapore Trade Classification, Customs & Excise Duties 2017 (STCCED 2017 or HS 2017). STCCED classification adopts the ASEAN Harmonised Tariff Nomenclature 2017 (AHTN 2017). This is based on the 6-digit Harmonised Commodity Description and Coding System developed by the World Customs Organisation (WCO) for the classification of goods.


Industrial Activity

Industrial activity refers to the principal activity undertaken by the enterprise. This is where the enterprise devotes most of its resources; or from which it derives most of its income. The classification of the principal activity of the enterprise in the SES 2020 is based on the Singapore Standard Industrial Classification, 2015 (SSIC 2015). SSIC 2015 adopts the basic framework and principles of the International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC).


Planning Region/Area

Planning Region/Area refers to those demarcated in the Urban Redevelopment Authority’s Master Plan 2014.


Glossary


Energy Products


Coal & Peat Products

Coal and Peat products include all coals, both primary (including Hard Coal and Lignite/Brown Coal) and derived fuels (including Patent Fuel, Coke over Coke, Gas Coke, BKB, Coke Oven Gas, Blast Furnace Gas and Oxygen Steel Furnace Gas). Peat is also included in this category. The energy products and their corresponding HS 2017 codes under this category are:


Hard Coal 27011210,  27011290,  27011900
Anthracite 27011100
Lignite 27021000,  27022000
Peat 27030010,  27030020
Coke Oven Coke 27040010,  27040020,  27040030
Coal Tar 27060000
BKB/PB6 27012000
Gas Works Gas 27050000


Crude Oil Products

Crude Oil products include Crude Oil, Natural Gas Liquids, Refinery Feedstocks and Additives as well as other Hydrocarbons. The energy products and their corresponding HS 2017 codes under this category are:


Crude Oil 27090010,  27090020,  27090090
Natural Gas Liquids 27111410,  27111490,  27112900
Refinery Feedstocks 27101920,  27109100,  27109900
Additives/Oxygenates 29091100,  29091900,  29092000,
29093000,  29094100,  29094300,
29094400,  29094900,  29095000,
29096000,  38112110,  38112190,
38112900,  38119090,  22072011,
22072019,  22072090,  29051100


Petroleum Products

Petroleum Products include Ethane, LPG, Aviation Gasoline, Motor Gasoline, Jet Fuel, Kerosene, Gas/Diesel Oil, Fuel Oil, Naphtha, White Spirit, Lubricants, Bitumen, Paraffin Waxes, Petroleum Coke and other Petroleum Products. The energy products and their corresponding HS 2017 codes under this category are:


LIGHT DISTILLATES
Gasoline (Aviation) 27101231,  27101239
Gasoline (Motor) 27101211,  27101212,  27101213,
27101221,  27101222,  27101223,
27101224,  27101225,  27101226,
27101227,  27101228,  27101229
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) 27111200,  27111300,  27111900
Naphtha 27101280
White Spirit SBP 27101240,  27101250,  27101260,
27101270,  27101280,  27101291,
27101292,  27101299,
MIDDLE DISTILLATES
Gas/Diesel Oil 27101971,  27101972
Jet Fuel Kerosene 27101981,  27101982
Other Kerosene 27101983
HEAVY DISTILLATES & RESIDUUM
Bitumen 27132000,  27139000,  27141000,
27149000,  27150090
Fuel Oil 27101979
Lubricants 27101941,  27101942,  27101943,
27101944,  27101950
Other Petroleum Products 27071000,  27072000,  27073000,
27074000,  27075000,  27079100,
27079910,  27079990,  27081000,
27082000,  27101930,  27101960,
27101989,  27101990,  27102000
Paraffin Waxes 27121000,  27122000,  27129010,
27129090
Petroleum Coke 27131100,  2713120


Natural Gas

Natural Gas includes Natural Gas (excluding Natural Gas Liquids) and Town Gas. The energy products and their corresponding HS 2017 codes under this category are:


Natural Gas 27112190
Liquefied Natural Gas 27111100


Others (Energy Products)

Others refer to other energy products that are not classified. These include Solar, Biomass, and Waste (such as Municipal Waste and Biogas). Municipal Waste is waste produced by residential, commercial and public services that is collected by local authorities for disposal in a central location for the production of electricity and/or heat.



Electricity Generation


Main Power Producers

These are enterprises that produce electricity as their principal activity.


Autoproducers

These are enterprises that produce electricity but for whom the production is not their principal activity.


Own Use

Own use in electricity generation refers to the part of electricity generated which is consumed by the auxiliary equipment of the generation plant (such as pumps, fans and motors) under normal operations.


Registered Generation Capacity

The registered generation capacity of a generation facility is the maximum generation capacity approved by Power System Operator (PSO), and registered with Energy Market Company (EMC) to provide one or more of the following products in the Singapore Wholesale Electricity Market (SWEM):
1. Energy;
2. Reserve (Primary, Secondary or Contingency); and/or
3. Regulation.


Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) Plant

Combined Cycle Gas Turbines are a form of highly-efficient energy generation technology that combines a gas-fired turbine with a steam turbine.
The design uses a gas turbine to create electricity. It then captures the resulting waste heat to create steam which, in turn, drives a steam turbine to significantly increase the system’s power output without any increase in fuel.


Co-Generation (Co-Gen) Plant

Co-generation plants (also known as combined heat plants) are plants which simultaneously generate electricity and useful heat from a common fuel source. This improves overall thermodynamical efficiency.


Tri-Generation (Tri-Gen) Plant

Tri-generation plants are those which simultaneously generate electricity, useful heat and cooling from a common fuel source. This improves overall thermodynamical efficiency.


Open Cycle Gas Turbine (OCGT) Plant

An Open Cycle Gas Turbine plant is a gas turbine power plant which discards the heat content of the exhaust gases exiting the turbine. This is as opposed to using a heat exchanger or recovered in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) as in a CCGT.


Steam Turbine Plant

A steam turbine is a turbine that is driven by the pressure of steam discharged at high velocity against the turbine vanes.


Waste-To-Energy (WTE) Plant

A Waste-To-Energy plant is a power plant which generates power from the incineration of waste.




Grid Emission Factor


Grid Emission Factor (GEF)

The Grid Emission Factor measures average CO2 emission emitted per MWh of electricity. It is calculated using the Average Operating Margin (OM) method. This is the generation-weighted average CO2 emissions per unit net electricity generation of all generating power plants serving the system.


Build Margin (BM) Emission Factor

The Build Margin Emission Factor refers to the generation-weighted average CO2 emissions per unit net electricity generation, of the set of five power units most recently built; and/or the set of power capacity additions that comprise 20% of system generation that have been built recently.


Methane Emission Factor

The Methane Emission Factor measures average CH4 emission emitted per MWh of the set of five power units as defined in the BM.



Electricity & Natural Gas Consumption


Electricity Consumption

This refers to total electricity consumption by end users, including (embedded) consumption by Autoproducers.


Final Natural Gas Consumption

This refers to total natural gas consumption by end-users, excluding consumption for electricity generation.


Final Energy Consumption

Final energy consumption covers all energy supplied to the final consumer for all energy uses. It is usually disaggregated into the final end-use sectors such as Industrial, Commerce & Services, Transport, Households, and Others.



Sectorial Activities


Industrial-related

Industrial-related consumption is defined by the following sub-sectors. This is in accordance to the Singapore Standard Industrial Classification 2015 (SSIC 2015).


Agriculture and Fishing SSIC Section A, Division 1-3
Mining and Quarrying SSIC Section B, Division 8-9
Manufacturing SSIC Section C, Division 10-32
Utilities SSIC Section D, Division 35, and Section E, Division 36-38
Construction SSIC Section F, Division 41-43


Commerce & Services-related

Commerce & Services-related consumption is defined by the following sub-sectors. This is in accordance to the Singapore Standard Industrial Classification 2015 (SSIC 2015).


Wholesale and Retail Trade SSIC Section G, Division 46-47
Accommodation and Food Services Activities SSIC Section I, Division 55 - 56
Information and Communications SSIC Section J, Division 58-63
Financial and Insurance Activities SSIC Section K, Division 64-66
Real Estate Activities SSIC Section L, Division 68
Professional, Scientific and Technical Activities SSIC Section M, Division 69-75
Administrative and Support Services Activities SSIC Section N, Division 77-82
Public Administration and Defence SSIC Section O, Division 84
Education SSIC Section P, Division 85
Health and Social Services SSIC Section Q, Division 86-88
Arts, Entertainment and Recreation SSIC Section R, Division 90-93
Other Service Activities SSIC Section S, Division 94-96
Activities of Households as Employers of Domestic Personnel SSIC Section T, Division 97
Activities of Extra-Territorial Organisations and Bodies SSIC Section U, Division 99


Transport-related

Transport-related consumption is defined by the following subsectors. This is in accordance to the Singapore Standard Industrial Classification 2015 (SSIC 2015).


Transport and Storage SSIC Section H, Division 49-53
of which:
Land Transport SSIC Division 49
Water Transport SSIC Division 50
Air Transport SSIC Division 51
Warehousing and Support Activities for Transportation SSIC Division 52
Postal and Courier Activities SSIC Division 53


Households

The scope of the Households sector includes all households in their capacity as final consumers


Others

Others refer to sectors or activities not adequately defined in SSIC 2015.



Planning Area


Central Region

Bishan, Bukit Merah, Bukit Timah, Downtown Core, Geylang, Kallang, Marine Parade, Marina East, Marina South, Museum, Newton, Novena, Orchard, Outram, Queenstown, River Valley, Rochor, Singapore River, Southern Islands, Straits View, Tanglin, Toa Payoh


East Region

Bedok, Changi, Changi Bay, Paya Lebar, Pasir Ris, Tampines


North-East Region

Ang Mo Kio, Hougang, Punggol, North Eastern Islands, Seletar, Sengkang, Serangoon


North Region

Central Water Catchment, Lim Chu Kang, Mandai, Simpang, Sembawang, Sungei Kadut, Woodlands, Yishun


West Region

Boon Lay, Bukit Batok, Bukit Panjang, Choa Chu Kang, Clementi, Jurong East, Jurong West, Pioneer, Tengah, Tuas, Western Islands, Western Water Catchment



Electricity Tariffs Components


Energy Costs

This is paid to the generation companies and reflects the cost of power generation.


Grid Charges

This is paid to SP Power Assets to recover the costs of transporting electricity through the grid


Market Support Services Fees

This is paid to SP Services to recover the costs of billing and meter reading.


Power System Operation & Market Administration Fees

This is paid to the Power System Operator and Energy Market Company to recover the costs of operating the power system and electricity wholesale market.



Job Categories and Residency Status for Power Sector Employees


Management

Management refers to Chief Executive Officer and Head of Division/ Department/ Section.


Engineer

Engineer refers to Senior Engineer, Engineer, Executive Engineer, Principal Engineer, Shift Manager, Team leader and Deputy Team Leader.


Technical Officer

Technical Officer refers to Principal Technical Officer, Senior Technical Officer and Technical Officer.


Technician

Technician refers to Senior Technician, Technician, Mechanic and Electrician.


Corporate Services Staff

Corporate Service Staff refers to those in Finance, Human Resource, Legal, Administration, Information Technology and Corporate Communications


Commercial Staff

Commercial Staff refers to Customer Accounts Manager, Business Analyst and those in Business Development, Sales and Marketing.


Trading Staff

Trading Staff refers to System Balance Trader, Position Trader and Quantitative Analyst


Others

Others include Assistant Technician, Semi-skilled Staff and other occupations not classified elsewhere.


Residency Status

Employees under Resident category refers to Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents. Employees under Non-Resident category refers to foreigners.



Licensed Electrical, Gas Service and Cable Detection Workers


Electrical Engineer

An electrical engineer’s licence entitles the holder to carry out the following electrical work:

  • design, install, repair, maintain, operate, inspect, test and take full charge and responsibility for any electrical installation.
  • An electrical engineer’s licence has a range of operation voltage restrictions. They are as follows:-
    • in operation : “up to 1,000 volts”
    • in operation : “up to 22,000 volts”
    • in operation : “up to 66,000 volts”
    • in operation : “up to 230,000 volts”
    • restricted to particular installations


Electrical Technician

An electrical technician’s licence entitles the holder to carry out the following electrical work:

  • install, repair, maintain, operate, inspect and test an electrical installation where the operating voltage of such an installation does not exceed 1,000 volts and the approved load of such installation does not exceed 500 kVA;
  • design and submit plans and drawings of an electrical installation. The operating voltage of such an installation does not exceed 1,000 volts and the approved load of such installation does not exceed 150 kVA. The limitation of 1,000 volts shall not apply in the case of an Electric Discharge Lighting Circuit; and
  • carry out any work or switching operation as instructed by or under the supervision of an authorised high voltage switching engineer.


Electrician

An electrician’s licence entitles the holder to carry out the following electrical work:

  • design, install, repair, maintain, operate, inspect and test an electrical/supply installation where the operating voltage of such an installation does not exceed 1,000 volts and the approved load of such installation does not exceed 45 kVA. The limitation of 1,000 volts shall not apply in the case of an Electric Discharge Lighting Circuit;
  • install, repair, maintain and operate, under the supervision of an electrical technician. The operating voltage of the, electrical/supply installation should not exceed 1,000 volts and the approved load of such installation should be more than 45 kVA but does not exceed 500 kVA; and
  • carry out any work as instructed by or under the supervision of an authorised high voltage switching engineer.


Gas Service Worker

A gas service worker licence entitles the holder to carry out the following gas service work where the operating pressure is not more than 30 mbar:

  • to construct, fix, alter, repair and renew gas pipes and fittings;
  • to install, maintain, repair and test gas appliances; and
  • to install or remove gas meters and to turn-on the gas supply on behalf of a gas licensee.


Gas Service Worker (Restricted)

A gas service worker licence (restricted) entitles the holder to carry out the following gas service work where the operating pressure is not more than 30 mbar:

  • to install, maintain, repair and test gas appliances; and
  • to install or remove gas meters and to turn-on the gas supply on behalf of a gas licensee.


Cable Detection Workers

A licensed cable detection worker is entitled to perform cable detection work. To minimise damages to electricity cables, it is mandatory to perform cable detection work prior to the commencement of any earthworks.
Cable detection work must be carried out by a licensed cable detection worker. He should inform or advise the earthworks contractor, who engaged him, of the location of the cables detected within the worksite.



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