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Our Energy Story


Discover how the Singapore Energy Story sets the vision towards a net-zero energy future.

Energy Supply

Gain insights into the four switches that power Singapore’s economy and our daily lives.

Energy Demand

Discover ways to enhance energy efficiency and lower your carbon footprint.

Energy Grid

Explore how EMA ensures a reliable and secure energy supply for everyone.

Energy Market Landscape

Learn about the intricacies of Singapore’s energy market structure and operations.

Consumer Information


Get tips on buying electricity and protecting your family from electrical hazards.


Learn about purchasing gas and safeguarding your family against gas hazards.


Access information on installing solar panels at your home and selling excess electricity to the national grid.

Regulations & Licences


Stay up-to-date with the latest regulations, policies and frameworks governing the energy sector.


Learn about the licences that EMA issues to different stakeholders in the energy sector.

Regulatory Publications

Read about the Codes of Practice and Circulars that EMA publishes to regulate the energy sector.


Calls for Proposal

Collaborate with EMA in co-creating innovative solutions for the energy sector.


Give your comments and feedback on EMA’s policies and regulations.

R&D Partnerships

Discover how EMA works with stakeholders to catalyse new and innovative digital technologies.

Talent Development

Learn about EMA’s efforts in nurturing talent and cultivate interest in the energy sector.

Welcome to EMA’s new website. We would love to get your valuable feedback through FormSG.

Chapter 2: Energy Transformation

Electricity Generation

In 2021, 10,025.0 ktoe (116.6 TWh) of energy inputs were required to generate gross electricity output of 4,797.0 ktoe (55.8 TWh). In 1H 2022, 5,139.8 ktoe (59.8 TWh) of energy inputs were used to generate gross electricity output of 2,440.0 (28.4 TWh).

Electricity Generation Inputs and Output

*Data for 2022 is as at Jun-22.

Electricity Generation Industry

Generators Market Shares based on Electricity Generation

The market share distribution of the power generation market remained relatively constant since 2016. Market share of electricity generation by SembCorp Cogen and Keppel Merlimau Cogen increased in 2021 compared to preceding years. As of June 2022, Tuas Power held the largest market share (22.9%), followed by Senoko Energy (17.9%) and YTL PowerSeraya (15.4%).

Percentage Contribution to Total Electricity Generation (as at end period)

*Data for 2022 is as at Jun-22.

**Includes electricity generation by Tuaspring from Jan-May 2022. Tuaspring was acquired by Taser Power Pte Ltd as of 01-Jun-22.

Electricity Generation Capacity by Technology Type

The total electricity generation capacity increased from 12,024.6 MW in 2020 to 12,179.1 MW in 2021. The growth was largely attributed to the increase in the installed capacity of Solar Photo Voltaic (PV) Systems which grew by 46.4% from 332.5 MWac in 2020 to 487.0 MWac in 2021.

As of March 2022, Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Co-Generation and Tri-Generation plants collectively accounted for 84.9% (or 10,357.9 MW) of the total generation capacity in Singapore. Steam Turbines, Solar PVs, Waste-to-Energy and Open Cycle Gas Turbines, contributed to the remaining share of 6.3% (or 763.6 MW), 4.2 (or 515.9 MWac), 3.2% (or 393.0 MW) and 1.5% (or 180.0 MW) respectively.

Electricity Generation Capacity by Technology Type (as at end period)

*Data for 2022 is as at Mar-2022.

Fuel Mix for Electricity Generation

In 2021, Natural Gas accounted for 94.9% of our fuel mix. Other energy products (e.g. Municipal Waste, Biomass and Solar) accounted for 2.9%, while the rest were contributed by Coal (1.2%) and Petroleum Products, mainly in the form of Diesel and Fuel Oil (1.0%).

Electricity Generation Fuel Mix

*Data for 2022 is as at Jun-2022.

Grid Emission Factor

Operating Margin (OM) Grid Emission Factor (GEF) measures the average CO2 emissions emitted per unit of net electricity generation in the system by all grid-connected power units. The OM GEF includes generation technologies from main power producers (e.g. combined cycle power plants, waste-to-energy) and autoproducers* (e.g. embedded co-generation plants and solar).

The Build Margin (BM) Emission Factor refers to the average CO2 emissions emitted per unit of net electricity generation by the 5 most recently built power units. Singapore’s BM emission factor trends lower than the OM emission factor as the most recently built power plants are generally more efficient as compared to the older plants.

Singapore’s average OM GEF fell from 0.4074kg CO2/kWh in 2020 to 0.4057 kg CO2/kWh in 2021.

*Refers to enterprises that produce electricity but for whom the production is not their principal activity.

Grid Emission Factor

Energy Flows in the Oil Refining Sector

In 2020, a total of 42.3 Mtoe of refinery inputs (comprising 34.9 Mtoe of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Liquids and 7.4 Mtoe of Other Feedstocks) were utilised by the oil refining* sector, a 16.7% decrease from 50.8 Mtoe in 2019. These inputs were used for the production of refined products by the oil refineries.These inputs yielded an output of 41.4 Mtoe of petroleum products** in 2020, 16.8% lower than the output of 49.8 Mtoe in 2019. The output of petroleum products recorded for light distillates (9.9 Mtoe), middle distillates (18.5 Mtoe) and heavy distillates (13.0 Mtoe) were about 21.8%, 21.7% and 3.6% lower than their corresponding outputs in 2019.

*An oil refinery takes crude oil and separates it into different fractions. The refinery then converts those fractions into usable products. These products are finally blended to produce finished petroleum products (e.g. Gasoline, Naphtha, Jet Fuels and Fuel Oils) as outputs.

** Petroleum products can be classified under light distillates (e.g. LPG, Gasoline, Naphtha), middle distillates (e.g. Kerosene, Jet Fuel, Diesel), heavy distillates and residuum (e.g. heavy fuel oil, lubricating, wax).

Refinery Input and Output

*Data for 2022 is as at Jun-22.