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Energy Transformation

Chapter 02


Electricity Generation

9,795.8 ktoe (113.9 TWh) of energy inputs was used to generate gross electricity output of 4,655.4 ktoe (54.1 TWh) in 2019.


Electricity Generation Industry

Generators’ Market Shares based on Electricity Generation Capacity

The market share distribution of the power generation market remained relatively constant in 2019, with YTL PowerSeraya and Keppel Merlimau Cogen being the two Main Power Producers which saw an increase in market share.

At present, Tuas Power holds the largest market share (20.3%), followed by Senoko Energy (17.3%) and YTL PowerSeraya (16.0%)


Percentage Contribution to Total Electricity Generation Capacity (as at end period)



Electricity Generation Capacity by Technology Type

The total electricity generation capacity increased slightly from 12,562.8 MW in 2019 to 12,582.0 MW (as of Q1 2020) due to an increase in the generation capacity of Solar Photovoltaics (PVs). As of Q1 2020, Singapore has achieved our 2020 solar deployment target of 350 MWp in Q1 2020. Looking ahead, Singapore's next target is at least 2GWp of solar deployment in 2030. This is equivalent to powering about 350,000 households for a year.

As of end March 2020, CCGT, Co-Generation and/or Tri-Generation plants, Steam Turbines and Open Cycle Gas Turbines accounted for 83.4% (or 10,491.4 MW), 10.8% (or 1,363.6 MW) and 1.4% (or 180.0 MW) of total electricity generation capacity respectively. Waste-To-Energy and Solar PVs contributed to the remaining 2.0% (or 256.8 MW) and 2.3% (or 290.2 MW) of total electricity capacity respectively.


Electricity Generation Capacity by Technology Type (as at end period)

Electricity Generation Fuel Mix


Grid Emission Factor

Energy Flows in the Oil Refining Sector

About 54.2 Mtoe of refinery inputs were consumed by the oil refining* sector in 2018, a 1.1% decrease from 54.8 Mtoe in 2017. These inputs yielded 52.7 Mtoe of refinery outputs, 0.3% lower than the corresponding output of 52.9 Mtoe a year earlier.

Petroleum products can be broadly grouped into four categories: light distillates (e.g. LPG, Gasoline, Naphtha), middle distillates (e.g. Kerosene, Jet Fuel, Diesel), heavy distillates and residuum (e.g. heavy fuel oil, lubricating, wax).

In 2018, middle distillates recorded output totalling 24.6 Mtoe, about 6.6% higher than the corresponding output in 2017. In contrast, light distillates (13.0 Mtoe) and heavy distillates (15.2 Mtoe) outputs fell by 8.6% and 3.1% respectively in 2018.

*An oil refinery takes crude oil and separates it into different fractions. The refinery then converts those fractions into usable products. These products are finally blended to produce finished petroleum products (e.g. Gasoline, Naphtha, Jet Fuels and Fuel Oils) as outputs.


Refinery Input and Output