9,795.8 ktoe (113.9 TWh) of energy inputs was used to generate gross electricity output of 4,655.4 ktoe (54.1 TWh) in 2019.
Electricity Generation Inputs and Output
The market share distribution of the power generation market remained relatively constant in 2019, with YTL PowerSeraya and Keppel Merlimau Cogen being the two Main Power Producers which saw an increase in market share.
At present, Tuas Power holds the largest market share (20.3%), followed by Senoko Energy (17.3%) and YTL PowerSeraya (16.0%)
The total electricity generation capacity increased slightly from 12,562.8 MW in 2019 to 12,582.0 MW (as of Q1 2020) due to an increase in the generation capacity of Solar Photovoltaics (PVs). As of Q1 2020, Singapore has achieved our 2020 solar deployment target of 350 MWp in Q1 2020. Looking ahead, Singapore's next target is at least 2GWp of solar deployment in 2030. This is equivalent to powering about 350,000 households for a year.
As of end March 2020, CCGT, Co-Generation and/or Tri-Generation plants, Steam Turbines and Open Cycle Gas Turbines accounted for 83.4% (or 10,491.4 MW), 10.8% (or 1,363.6 MW) and 1.4% (or 180.0 MW) of total electricity generation capacity respectively. Waste-To-Energy and Solar PVs contributed to the remaining 2.0% (or 256.8 MW) and 2.3% (or 290.2 MW) of total electricity capacity respectively.
In 2019, Natural Gas accounted for 95.6% of our fuel mix. Other energy products (e.g. Municipal Waste, Biomass and Solar) accounted for 2.8%, while the rest were contributed by Coal (1.2%) and Petroleum Products, mainly in the form of Diesel and Fuel Oil (0.4%).
The Grid Emission Factor (GEF)* measures average CO2 emissions emitted per MWh of electricity generated. The Operating Margin (OM) GEF measures all generating power plants’ generation-weighted average CO2 emissions per unit net electricity generation in the system. The OM GEF includes generation technologies from main power producers (e.g. combined cycle power plants, waste-to-energy) and autoproducers** (e.g. embedded co-generation plants and solar).
The Build Margin (BM) Emission Factor refers to the most recently built power units’ generation-weighted average CO2 emissions per unit net electricity generation. Singapore’s BM emission factor trends lower than the OM emission factor as the most recently built power plants are generally more efficient as compared to the older plants.
Singapore’s average OM GEF fell from 0.4206 kg CO2/kWh in 2018 to 0.4085 kg CO2/kWh in 2019.
* The historical GEF figures from 2017 and 2018 have been revised to include fossil fuel-based carbon emissions from the incineration of non-plastics such as textile, rubber and leather.
** Refers to enterprises that produce electricity but for whom the production is not their principal activity.
About 54.2 Mtoe of refinery inputs were consumed by the oil refining* sector in 2018, a 1.1% decrease from 54.8 Mtoe in 2017. These inputs yielded 52.7 Mtoe of refinery outputs, 0.3% lower than the corresponding output of 52.9 Mtoe a year earlier.
Petroleum products can be broadly grouped into four categories: light distillates (e.g. LPG, Gasoline, Naphtha), middle distillates (e.g. Kerosene, Jet Fuel, Diesel), heavy distillates and residuum (e.g. heavy fuel oil, lubricating, wax).
In 2018, middle distillates recorded output totalling 24.6 Mtoe, about 6.6% higher than the corresponding output in 2017. In contrast, light distillates (13.0 Mtoe) and heavy distillates (15.2 Mtoe) outputs fell by 8.6% and 3.1% respectively in 2018.
*An oil refinery takes crude oil and separates it into different fractions. The refinery then converts those fractions into usable products. These products are finally blended to produce finished petroleum products (e.g. Gasoline, Naphtha, Jet Fuels and Fuel Oils) as outputs.
Refinery Input and Output